Hello again from Ireland where the last month that is typically a quiet one in terms of news stories has thrown up a few bizarre issues that have hit the headlines around the world. See the News articles below.
In this month's issue we explore the history of the O'Brien surname, have a review of some Celtic books and another great story from old Ireland.
Until next time,
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NEWS FROM IRELAND
SUCCESS, FURY AND SCANDAL FOR THE IRISH AT RIO OLYMPICS
The fallout from the participation of the Irish Olympic squad at the Rio Olympics continues with the news that the Olympic Council of Ireland President, Pat Hickey, will likely face the evidence that has been assembled by Brazilian police soon. He had previously been remanded in Rio's notorious Bangu prison before being released and placed under house arrest.
The scandal involves allegations of corruption surrounding the allocation of Olympic Games tickets. Ticket touting is illegal in Brazil where fines or imprisonment can accrue for individuals who sell tickets at above face-value.
Ireland emerged with Silver medals from the games with the O'Riordan brothers from Skibberreen achieving Silver in the rowing while Dubliner Annalise Murphy claimed Silver in the sailing. Murphy had previously finished fourth at the London Olympic Games despite having been in a medal position for the majority of the racing. Her dedication and determination have proved inspirational to many and promoted the sport of sailing to new heights in Ireland
There were fine performances too from Aileen Reid who finished 21st in the Pentathlon, while Thomas Barr finished fourth in the 110M hurdles. Oliver Dingley finished in eight place in the 3M springboard diving. Rob Heffernan finished sixth in the 50Km walk having received news earlier that he had been awarded a Bronze medal retrospectively for his fourth-place finish at the London Games. The race-winner, the Russian Sergey Kirdyapkin, was disqualified for doping offences meaning the Cork-based athlete was upgraded to a medal.
Perhaps the greatest disappointment for the Irish team was with the boxing. Katie Taylor slumped to a shock defeat to Mira Potkonen of Finland while bizarre judging decisions robbed Michael Conlon of progress. He later vowed to never again box at an amateur level in a bitter rant against the AIBA boxing authority and their failure to adequately govern the sport.
IRELAND REFUSES 13 BILLION EURO FROM APPLE IN BIZARRE EU STANDOFF
In a bizarre sequence of events that has made international news the Irish Government is actively refusing 13BN Euro in back-taxes from Apple Inc. The maker of the iPad and iPhone has been accused by the European Commission (EC) of tax evasion and they ordered the Internet giant to pay the money to the Irish treasury.
Of course, this being Ireland, the Government has decided to refuse the cash and instead is launching an appeal against the EC's ruling, and effectively on behalf of Apple!
Needless to say this has caused a large degree of consternation among the Irish citizenry with some commentators pointing out that 13BN could effectively solve the homeless crisis as well as pay for an airport train link.
However, regardless of the attraction of a short term grab of Euros it seems that the decision by the Government to dispute the EC ruling is based on logic, even if many people disagree with that logic.
By attacking this EC ruling the Irish Government are positioning themselves as the defender of the multi-nationals (in Ireland at any rate). This is not an unimportant consideration where multinationals such as Google, Microsoft and Apple have enormous presence, creating tens of thousands of jobs and helping to stimulate economic activity wherever they locate in the country.
The Government also view the EC ruling as a direct assault on the Irish 12.5% Corporate tax rate that has rankled with the French and Germans in particular for many years, and who are among those countries that want to see a harmonized EU Corporate tax regime.
Ireland is completely opposed to this with the imperative to maintain the competitive advantage all the more pressing in the wake of the UK Brexit and the likelihood the UK Government will also reduce their Corporate tax rate.
Like Brexit this EC-Ireland-Apple battle could take years to play out so the chances of any bumper paydays for Ireland seem a long way off yet.
Those who are opposed to Ireland battling the EC on behalf of Apple point out that this huge US company has effectively paid a mere 0.01% of tax in Ireland and not the headline 12.5% Corporate tax rate that is so often mentioned.
Several US Senators have labelled Ireland as a 'tax haven' with the undercurrent to the realpolitik being that these huge companies are seeking, and actually, paying a miniscule amount of tax relative to their profits, in the face of the ethical and moral questions that such tactics raise.
PROPERTY TAX TIME-BOMB LOOMING LARGE
The revaluation of houses in Ireland that is scheduled to take place in 2019 is set to increase the hated property tax by as much as 150% in some cases.
The Irish property market has recovered much of the ground it lost after the collapse of the market in 2008 that brought down the banks, spiralling the entire Irish economy down the drain, resulting in massive debts to be repaid to the EU, ECB and IMF over the coming decades.
The property tax was introduced in 2013 with home-owners selecting the tax band that applied to their property, based on the value at that time. With property prices increasing it is expected that just about everyone's tax bill will increase dramatically.
TWO IRISH CITIES AMONG WORLD'S FRIENDLIEST
The 2016 Condé Nast Traveler magazine that surveys tourists about the friendliness of the cities they visit has revealed some good news for Ireland.
The survey of 128,000 people has revealed that Dublin and Galway continue to rank superbly in the overall friendliness league table:
1. Charleston, South Carolina
2. Sydney, Australia
4. Queenstown, New Zealand
5. Park City, Utah
7. Savannah, Georgia
8. Krakow, Poland
9. Bruges, Belgium
10. Nashville, Tennessee
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FIND YOUR NAME IN OUR GALLERY OF IRISH COATS OF ARMS
FAMOUS IRISH FAMILY NAMES: O'BRIEN
It would be possible to fill volumes with the exploits of the famous O'Brien families of Ireland.
Their history is so varied and their influence so keenly felt in the realm of the Irish experience that to summarize their adventures in a few short paragraphs is surely to fail to do their legacy justice.
The families of O'Brien originated from an ancient Gaelic sept known as Uí Toirdealbhaigh that was based in Thomond in modern day Limerick. Their greatest family member however, was soon to catapult this obscure sept into vital prominence in the history of Ireland.
Brian Boru (941-1014), of the Uí Toirdealbhaigh was to become the High King of Ireland. He is remembered most for defeating the Vikings at the Battle of Clontarf in the year 1014, a battle which signified the diminishment of Viking influence in Ireland from that time forward in what was a pivotal moment in Irish history. Brian Boru is perhaps the greatest military leader the country has ever known.
He was born Brian Mac Cennétig, his mother being sister to the mother of Conor, the King of Connaught. He earned his name as 'Brian of the Tributes' (Brian Boru), by collecting tributes from the minor rulers of Ireland and using the monies raised to restore monasteries and libraries that had been destroyed during the Viking raids and invasions.
It is informative when discussing the development of Irish names to note that Brian Boru did not in fact use any surname as the practice of using surnames was still in its infancy across Europe in the tenth and eleventh centuries. It is recorded that Donagh Cairbre (1194-1242), another of the O'Brien descendants, was among the earliest of the sept members to use O'Brien as a surname.
It is from Brian Boru that the families of O'Brien take their name, with several branches of the enlarged sept dividing into separate septs that would eventually control large parts of Munster Province in the south of the country. Prominent among these septs were the O'Briens of Ara in Tipperary whose chief was known as Mac Ui Bhriain Ara. There were other branches around Limerick, at Aherlow and near Dungarvan. Modern descendants can still be found in these places and especially so in County Clare.
During the time of the subjugation of the Gaelic culture the name had been anglicized as 'Brien', as it was a real disadvantage to have a Gaelic sounding 'Mac' or 'O' name in seventeenth century Ireland. But with the revival of Gaelic consciousness in the latter part of the nineteenth century the vast majority of families reassumed the prefix 'O' to render their name as O'Brien.
O'Briens of prominence include Murrough O'Brien (1551), who was the first Earl of Thomond. Murrough of the Burnings (1674), was the notorious sixth Baron of Inchiquin. The hereditary titles that the O'Briens occupied in the wake of the collapse of the Gaelic order after the Battle of Kinsale in 1601 include the Earls of Thomond, the Earls of Inchiquin and the Viscounts of Clare.
This was a crucial period in the development of Irish names as from this time onwards the Gaelic tradition of Tanistry was replaced with the very English system of Primogeniture.
Tanistry was a Gaelic method whereby the successor to a Chieftainship could be selected from among several eligible contenders. It was not necessarily the direct descendant of the Chief who would succeed him, rather, the successor would be elected from among those who were 'righdamhna', meaning 'of kingly material'.
Where no outstanding candidate emerged then any male member of the sept could be so elected as Chief. All that was required was that the candidate was an ancestral member of the sept although in practice those with ancestral connections to the Chief often had more standing and thus were more likely to be elected as the new Chief.
Tanistry differs from Primogeniture in several ways including that succession is less predictable. In Primogeniture the eldest male in the family line would automatically inherit. In Tanistry this was not necessarily the case. In theory any member of the sept could attain the Chieftainship and all that such responsibility confers.
This would include the use of a family coat of arms. The difference between Gaelic Tanistry and English Primogeniture is one of the principle reasons why Irish heraldry is so different from English. In Ireland any member of the sept can reasonably bear the ancient family coat of arms, given that it is at least possible that they may have attained the position of Chief or alternatively, that the authentic Chieftainship ceased when Tanistry stopped. In the English system of Primogeniture no such possibility existed.
In the wake of the English victory at Kinsale and the 'Flight of the Earls' the choice facing the Gaelic Chiefs was simple. Either adopt Primogeniture and surrender to the English crown, or face being exterminated.
Unsurprisingly many surrendered and were 'regranted' some lands and titles. Many of those Irish families who retain claim to these titles up to the modern era do so on the basis of Primogeniture!
Some regard this as completely invalid and in opposition to the ancient Gaelic system. Others (particularly those in possession of such titles) regard the seventeenth century adoption of Primogeniture as a practical necessary step and encourage its continuance!
No less than the former Chief Herald of Ireland, Edward MacLysaght (1887-1986), perhaps the foremost Irish genealogist of the twentieth century, interpreted Irish history, genealogy and tanistry as a basis for the concept of 'sept arms' or an 'Irish family coat of arms' being freely borne by any member of the sept. While some later genealogists disagreed with his reasoning their reasons for doing are often self-serving.
From 'More Irish Families' by Edward MacLysaght, the first Chief Herald of Ireland:
Many Irish coats of arms may be displayed without impropriety by any person of the sept indicated if he really does belong to that sept.
In respect of the O'Briens it should be noted that not all of the ancient septs sided with the other native septs after the colonization was complete. 'Murrough of the Burnings' was infamous in this regard. In the wake of the Gaelic rebellion of 1641 he was responsible for the burning of Catholics who would not convert to Protestantism:
'We stormed and burned the abbey of Adare, held by the rebels, where four friars were burned and three took prisoners'
(Bagwell, p. 323. Cites: Rushworth, vii. 788)
But Daniel O'Brien (1577-1663), who was the first Viscount Clare, was in fact a member of the Supreme Council of the Catholic rebels. His descendant raised the 'Clare Dragoons', who were a fighting force of reputation in continental Europe.
Wiliam Smith O'Brien (1803-1864), was among the most prominent of the 'Young Irelanders', another rebel group.
Jeremiah O'Brien (1740-1818), fought against the British in the American War of Independence.
Fitzjames O'Brien (1828-1862), was an Irish author who fought in the American Civil war.
Families of O'Brien continue to be as prominent as ever in Irish affairs. Their name ranks as the sixth most frequently found in Ireland.
The video below is from 'The Learning Channel' and is a program recounting the life of Brian Boru.
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I have almost completed reading The Celts by Frank Delaney and just finished reading Celtic by T.W. Rolleston. Both are very good books but, with different styles of writing. In cooperation however, they delve into history and mythology in an exciting and educational way.
Celtic, started historically to give that background, then launched into the myths and legends and I believe the depth of information is very good. Such an approach is an excellent way to introduce and teach a novice into the world of Celts, but at the same time provides reinforced information for others with more familiarity on the topics too.
The Celts on the other hand seemed not so in depth in some historical areas, but, given the task of confining a history of European Celtic expansion to Ireland, Scotland etc, would fill volumes. Delaney does a fine job in summarising this yet, at the same time prompts further reading if one was inclined to go deeper into a particular area, such as the Viking invasions and other areas too. This author makes clever comparisons from his own Christian childhood when he writes about the merging of Christianity with the Celtic order. By this, I mean he draws parallels and points out that the merging was not difficult in Ireland because Celtic heroes became, in many instances, Saints or martyrs. Both Celts and Christians too, believed in a peaceful afterlife. The Celts also explained the Druids in good detail including, part of their demise being attributed to the introduction of writing i.e. it upset the Druids' hold on their power which relied on oral teachings.
One interesting aspect from The Celts (p. 136) mentions that one military historian attributes the American Civil War's renowned "rebel yell", used by the Confederates (initially at the first Battle of Bull Run, or Manassas, by the Confederates in 1861) originated from the ancient Celtic warriors' battle cry. The Confederate army did have many Scots and Welsh people. This links to another, perhaps little known point, about America in this book (p. 100), where it is states that a fellow by the name of Brendan may have voyaged to America in the 6th century. Another item from this book mentions that traditional Celtic singing has the same "notes, tonal and vocal embellishments" in traditional Asian music as well (p. 138). As an Australian, I find this amazing, because I do not have that in depth education on Irish history as someone who lives there.
I must admit though, I am puzzled how a seemingly advanced people (magic or technology), the Tuatha de Danaan, could be defeated by what appears to be the inferior Milesians. One thought would be that it was the realisation by the Tuatha to move on and make way for the new.
Both books make the interesting written observations from historical people too, such as Julius Caesar, which undoubtedly helps paint a broader picture of the Celts.
In summary, for someone not very familiar with Celtic history, I would suggest Celtic as the first read because, I feel The Celts has a little presumed background knowledge but, makes a great follow on to read. I thoroughly recommend both books.
Down in Fannet, in times gone by, lived Jamie Freel and his mother. Jamie was the widow's sole support - his strong arm worked for her untiringly, and as each Saturday night came round, he poured his wages into her lap, thanking her dutifully for the halfpence which she returned him for tobacco.
He was extolled by his neighbours as the best son ever known or heard of. But he had neighbours, of whose opinion he was ignorant--neighbours who lived pretty close to him, whom he had never seen, who are, indeed, rarely seen by mortals, except on May eves and Halloweens.
An old ruined castle, about a quarter of a mile from his cabin, was said to be the abode of the 'wee folk'. Every Halloween were the ancient windows lighted up, and passers-by saw little figures flitting to and fro inside the building, while they heard the music of pipes and flutes.
It was well known that fairy revels took place - but nobody had the courage to intrude on them.
Jamie had often watched the little figures from a distance, and listened to the charming music, wondering what the inside of the castle was like - but one Halloween he got up and took his cap, saying to his mother, 'I'm awa' to the castle to seek my fortune.'
'What'' cried she, 'would you venture there? you that's the poor widow's one son' Dinna be sae venturesome an' foolitch, Jamie' They'll kill you, an' then what'll come o' me?'
'Never fear, mother - nae harm 'ill happen me, but I maun gae.'
He set out, and as he crossed the potato-field, came in sight of the castle, whose windows were ablaze with light, that seemed to turn the russet leaves, still clinging to the crabtree branches, into gold.
Halting in the grove at one side of the ruin, he listened to the elfin revelry, and the laughter and singing made him all the more determined to proceed.
Numbers of little people, the largest about the size of a child of five years old, were dancing to the music of flutes and fiddles, while others drank and feasted.
'Welcome, Jamie Freel' welcome, welcome, Jamie'' cried the company, perceiving their visitor. The word 'Welcome' was caught up and repeated by every voice in the castle.
Time flew, and Jamie was enjoying himself very much, when his hosts said, 'We're going to ride to Dublin tonight to steal a young lady. Will you come too, Jamie Freel?'
'Aye, that will I'' cried the rash youth, thirsting for adventure.
A troop of horses stood at the door. Jamie mounted and his steed rose with him into the air. He was presently flying over his mother's cottage, surrounded by the elfin troop, and on and on they went, over bold mountains, over little hills, over the deep Lough Swilley, over towns and cottages, when people were burning nuts, and eating apples, and keeping merry Halloween. It seemed to Jamie that they flew all round Ireland before they got to Dublin.
'This is Derry,' said the fairies, flying over the cathedral spire - and what was said by one voice was repeated by all the rest, till fifty little voices were crying out, 'Derry' Derry' Derry''
In like manner was Jamie informed as they passed over each town on the route, and at length he heard the silvery voices cry, 'Dublin' Dublin''
It was no mean dwelling that was to be honoured by the fairy visit, but one of the finest houses in Stephen's Green.
The troop dismounted near a window, and Jamie saw a beautiful face, on a pillow in a splendid bed. He saw the young lady lifted and carried away, while the stick which was dropped in her place on the bed took her exact form.
The lady was placed before one rider and carried a short way, then given another, and the names of the towns were cried out as before.
They were approaching home. Jamie heard 'Rathmullan', 'Milford', 'Tamney', and then he knew they were near his own house.
'You've all had your turn at carrying the young lady,' said he. 'Why wouldn't I get her for a wee piece?'
'Ay, Jamie,' replied they, pleasantly, 'you may take your turn at carrying her, to be sure.'
Holding his prize very tightly, he dropped down near his mother's door.
'Jamie Freel, Jamie Freel' is that the way you treat us?' cried they, and they too dropped down near the door.
Jamie held fast, though he knew not what he was holding, for the little folk turned the lady into all sorts of strange shapes. At one moment she was a black dog, barking and trying to bite - at another, a glowing bar of iron, which yet had no heat - then, again, a sack of wool.
But still Jamie held her, and the baffled elves were turning away, when a tiny woman, the smallest of the party, exclaimed, 'Jamie Freel has her awa' frae us, but he sall hae nae gude o' her, for I'll mak' her deaf and dumb,' and she threw something over the young girl.
While they rode off disappointed, Jamie lifted the latch and went in.
'Jamie, man'' cried his mother, 'You've been awa' all night - what have they done on you?'
'Naething bad, mother - I ha' the very best of gude luck. Here's a beautiful young lady I ha' brought you for company.'
'Bless us an' save us'' exclaimed the mother, and for some minutes she was so astonished that she could not think of anything else to say.
Jamie told his story of the night's adventure, ending by saying, 'Surely you wouldna have allowed me to let her gang with them to be lost forever?'
'But a lady, Jamie' How can a lady eat we'er poor diet, and live in we'er poor way? I ax you that, you foolitch fellow?'
'Weel, mother, sure it's better for her to be here nor over yonder,' and he pointed in the direction of the castle.
Meanwhile, the deaf and dumb girl shivered in her light clothing, stepping close to the humble turf fire.
'Poor crathur, she's quare and handsome' Nae wonder they set their hearts on her,' said the old woman, gazing at her guest with pity and admiration. 'We maun dress her first - but what, in the name o' fortune, hae I fit for the likes o' her to wear?'
She went to her press in 'the room', and took out her Sunday gown of brown drugget - she then opened a drawer and drew forth a pair of white stockings, a long snowy garment of fine linen, and a cap, her 'dead dress', as she called it.
These articles of attire had long been ready for a certain triste ceremony, in which she would some day fill the chief part, and only saw the light occasionally, when they were hung out to air - but she was willing to give even these to the fair trembling visitor, who was turning in dumb sorrow and wonder from her to Jamie, and from Jamie back to her.
The poor girl suffered herself to be dressed, and then sat down on a 'creepie' in the chimney comer, and buried her face in her hands.
'What'll we do to keep up a lady like thou?' cried the old woman.
'I'll work for you both, mother,' replied the son.
'An' how could a lady live on we'er poor diet?' she repeated.
'I'll work for her,' was all Jamie's answer.
He kept his word. The young lady was very sad for a long time, and tears stole down her checks many an evening while the old woman spun by the fire, and Jamie made salmon nets, an accomplishment lately acquired by him, in hopes of adding to the comfort of his guest.
But she was always gentle, and tried to smile when she perceived them looking at her - and by degrees she adapted herself to their ways and mode of life. It was not very long before she began to feed the pig, mash potatoes and meal for the fowls, and knit blue worsted socks.
So a year passed, and Halloween came round again. 'Mother,' said Jamie, taking down his cap, 'I'm off to the ould castle to seek my fortune.'
'Are you mad, Jamie?' cried his mother, in terror - 'sure they'll kill you this time for what you done on them last year.''
Jamie made light of her fears and went his way.
As he reached the crab-tree grove, he saw bright lights in the castle windows as before, and heard loud talking. Creeping under the window, he heard the wee folk say, 'That was a poor trick Jamie Freel played us this night last year, when he stole the nice young lady from us.'
'Ay,' said the tiny woman, 'an' I punished him for it, for there she sits, a dumb image by his hearth - but he does na' know that three drops out o' this glass I hold in my hand wad gie her her hearing and her speeches back again.'
Jamie's heart beat fast as he entered the hall. Again he was greeted by a chorus of welcomes from the company--'Here comes Jamie Freel' welcome, welcome, Jamie''
As soon as the tumult subsided, the little woman said, 'You be to drink our health, Jamie, out o' this glass in my hand.'
Jamie snatched the glass from her and darted to the door. He never knew how he reached his cabin, but he arrived there breathless, and sank on a stove by the fire.
'You're kilt surely this time, my poor boy,' said his mother.
'No, indeed, better luck than ever this time'' and he gave the lady three drops of the liquid that still remained at the bottom of the glass, notwithstanding his mad race over the potato-field.
The lady began to speak, and her first words were words of thanks to Jamie.
The three inmates of the cabin had so much to say to one another, that long after cock-crow, when the fairy music had quite ceased, they were talking round the fire.
'Jamie,' said the lady, 'be pleased to get me paper and pen and ink, that I may write to my father, and tell him what has become of me.'
She wrote, but weeks passed, and she received no answer. Again and again she wrote, and still no answer.
At length she said, 'You must come with me to Dublin, Jamie, to find my father.'
'I ha' no money to hire a car for you,' he replied, 'an' how can you travel to Dublin on your foot?'
But she implored him so much that he consented to set out with her, and walk all the way from Fannet to Dublin. It was not as easy as the fairy journey - but at last they rang the bell at the door of the house in Stephen's Green.
'Tell my father that his daughter is here,' said she to the servant who opened the door.
'The gentleman that lives here has no daughter, my girl. He had one, but she died better nor a year ago.'
'Do you not know me, Sullivan?'
'No, poor girl, I do not.'
'Let me see the gentleman. I only ask to see him.'
'Well, that's not much to ax - we'll see what can be done.'
In a few moments the lady's father came to the door.
'Dear father,' said she, 'don't you know me?'
'How dare you call me father?' cried the old gentleman, angrily. 'You are an impostor. I have no daughter.'
'Look in my face, father, and surely you'll remember me.'
'My daughter is dead and buried. She died a long, long time ago.' The old gentleman's voice changed from anger to sorrow. 'You can go,' he concluded.
'Stop, dear father, till you look at this ring on my finger. Look at your name and mine engraved on it.'
'It certainly is my daughter's ring - but I do not know how you came by it I fear in no honest way.'
'Call my mother, she will be sure to know me,' said the poor girl, who, by this time, was crying bitterly.
'My poor wife is beginning to forget her sorrow. She seldom speaks of her daughter now. Why should I renew her grief by reminding her of her loss?'
But the young lady persevered, till at last the mother was sent for.
'Mother,' she began, when the old lady came to the door, 'don't you know your daughter?'
'I have no daughter - my daughter died and was buried a long, long time ago.'
'Only look in my face, and surely you'll know me.'
The old lady shook her head.
'You have all forgotten me - but look at this mole on my neck. Surely, mother, you know me now?'
'Yes, yes,' said the mother, 'my Gracie had a mole on her neck like that - but then I saw her in her coffin, and saw the lid shut down upon her.'
It became Jamie's turn to speak, and he gave the history of the fairy journey, of the theft of the young lady, of the figure he had seen laid in its place, of her life with his mother in Fannet, of last Halloween, and of the three drops that had released her from her enchantment.
She took up the story when he paused, and told how kind the mother and son had been to her.
The parents could not make enough of Jamie. They treated him with every distinction, and when he expressed his wish to return to Fannet, said they did not know what to, do to show their gratitude.
But an awkward complication arose. The daughter would not let him go without her. 'If Jamie goes, I'll go too,' she said. 'He saved me from the fairies, and has worked for me ever since. If it had not been for him, dear
father and mother, you would never have seen me again. If he goes, I'll go too.'
This being her resolution, the old gentleman said that Jamie should become his son-in-law. The mother was brought from Fannet in a coach and four, and there was a splendid wedding.
They all lived together in the grand Dublin house, and Jamie was heir to untold wealth at his father-in-law's death.
GAELIC PHRASES OF THE MONTH
Ta se a haon a clog, a do a clog, tri, ceathair, cuig, se, seacht, hocht, naoi, deich
taw shay a hane a clug, a dough a clug, tree, kah-irr, coo-igg, shockt, huckt, knee, deh
It is one o'clock, two o'clock, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten
Cén dath atá ar ?
cain dawt ah/taw air?
What color is it?
Ta se dearg, gorm, dubh, ban, oraiste, donn, bui, glas
taw shay dar-igg, gurrum, duve, bawn, orr-awsh-che, don, bwee, gloss
It is red, blue, black, white, orange, brown, yellow, green
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