================================================= IN THIS ISSUE === Foreword === News Snaps from Ireland === New free resources at the site === Play the Irish Lottery === An Irish Lullaby by Cherilyn Laymance === Catholic-Protestant Essay by Patrick Foley === Ireland by the Sea by Linda Marie Fratello === Canadian Veterans by Ralph McKenny === Green Mother by Barbara Walsh Tatro === Gaelic Phrases of the Month === Site of the Month: celticattic.com === Monthly free competition result ================================================= FOREWORD ======== Hi again from Ireland where the Christmas tree is up already in Dublin City Centre! There is fresh hope of a breakthrough in the Northern Ireland Peace talks while the main subject of conversation still seems to be the Smoking ban. Many thanks to our contributors who have again sent us in their stories, poems and reports and especially to Patrick Foley for his interesting historical essay. Why don't YOU submit an article, story or poem for the next edition? Until next month, Michael ================================================= GET YOUR CHRISTMAS SHOPPING DONE AND SUPPORT THIS NEWSLETTER WHILE YOU DO IT! Visit http://www.irishnation.com ================================================= WE NEED YOUR HELP! PLEASE - send this newsletter on to your friends or relatives who you think are interested in Ireland. By doing this you are helping to keep us 'free'. Got something to say? Don't keep it to yourself! Why don't you submit an article for inclusion in the next edition? Go here for more information: http://www.ireland-information.com/newsletter.htm Do you have access to a website? You can help to keep this newsletter alive by adding a link to any of our websites below: http://www.irishnation.com http://www.irishsurnames.com http://www.ireland-information.com http://www.allfamilycrests.com http://www.irishpenpals.com If you have an AOL or HOTMAIL account then you will get much better results by viewing this newsletter online here: http://www.ireland-information.com/nov04.htm The only way that you could have been subscribed to this newsletter is by filling out a subscription form at the site whereupon a confirmation notice would have been issued. If you wish to unsubscribe then go here: http://www.ireland-information.com/newsletter.htm ================================================= NEWS SNAPS FROM IRELAND ======================= HUGE REDUCTION IN ASYLUM APPLICATIONS The number of applications for asylum in Ireland was reduced by nearly half in 2003. New legislation preventing the automatic right to citizenship of children born in Ireland, as well as an increase in the enforcement of existing laws are being cited as the main reasons for the huge reduction, the largest in the EU. Nigeria and Romania continue to be the two countries from which most asylum applications in Ireland originate. Nearly 30,000 workers from the States recently admitted into the EU are now working in Ireland. Workers from Poland, Lithuania, the Czech Republic and the other new EU states no longer need a work permit to take up employment in Ireland. Of the new States admitted into the EU, Poland has contributed the largest number to the Irish workforce. SMOKING BAN TO BE ADOPTED IN OTHER COUNTRIES The effects of the smoking ban continue to be felt by publicans who claim that there has been a 10% reduction, or 23 M-illion, reduction in the number of 'pints' sold in Irish pubs. Publicans have long claimed that their business has been hit by at least 20% because of the smoking ban. Colder weather has meant that fewer people have visited public houses as the thought of smoking outside the pub is not so appealing. Huge sales of huge outdoors heaters which burn gas have caused concern for environmental groups who are worried about the increase in 'greenhouse' gases. Off-Licence sales continue to soar with more and more people opting to have a drink at home. The Government seems unlikely to water down its regulations, citing an overall reduction in both alcohol and cigarette consumption as being of great benefit to the health of the country. England and Scotland are to introduce similar smoking bans in the near future, although some English pubs that do not serve food may be exempt. The Government assault on the bad habits of its citizens continues unabated. Ireland has the biggest tax on beer and wine in the EU and the second largest tax on spirits. Tax on alcohol contributes over 2 B-illion Euro to Government finances. The EU is concerned at the wide disparity in the price of alcohol across Europe and has pointed out that the huge alcohol smuggling industry will continue to blossom as long as the price differentials continue. WORLD FAMOUS BEWLEYS CAFES MAY CLOSE The famous Bewleys cafe chain may be about to close. The company has announced that up to 234 jobs will be lost when the Grafton Street and Westmoreland Street outlets are closed due to huge losses. Several public representatives are lobbying the Government to intervene and provide funding so that a business that is synonymous with Dublin City Centre can be saved. CHERNOBYL CHILDREN MAY LOSE OUT AGAIN Since the Nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, over 10,000 children mostly from Belarus, have spent Christmas in Ireland, thanks to the 'Chernobyl Children's Project'. This expression of goodwill may be about to be stopped by the Belarus Government who are concerned with the 'consumerist' influence that such visits are having on the visiting children. BATTLE TO LEGALISE SAME-SEX MARRIAGES BEGINS A gay Irish couple have gone to Court to force the Irish Tax collection service (the Revenue Commissioners) to recognise them as a married couple for tax purposes. The move is seen as a precursor to the battle to have same-sex marriages legalised in Ireland. NEW TRAFFIC POLICE TO TAKE TO THE ROADS Details of the new Garda Traffic Corp have been announce with up to 1100 staff being appointed to tackle the ever worsening problems on Irish roads. The corp is expected to be operational within 3 years. MORE TROUBLE AT AER LINGUS The Irish national airline, Aer Lingus, was thrown into turmoil recently with the announcement that it 3 key executives are to resign. The airline was on the brink of total collapse in 2001 but has managed a starting turnaround in its fortunes as it continues to adapt to its new 'low-cost' policy. The sale of the airline is seen as inevitable although union demands for a huge stake in the company are likely to make the business less attractive to prospective investors. RORY GALLAGHER MEMORIAL TO GO AHEAD It appears that the memorial to legendary Cork Musician Rory Gallagher will go ahead despite objections from the National Photographic Archive in Temple Bar. The memorial was to be located on an outside wall of the building that currently houses the Photographic Archive, but the National Library who run the archive were unhappy with having the memorial placed there. Despite this, the owners of the high-profile property seem determined to persevere with their plans to honour Ireland's greatest ever blues-rock guitarist who most well-known works include 'Messing with the kid' and 'Shadowplay'. Voice your opinion on these news issues here: http://www.ireland-information.com/cgi-bin/newsletterboardindex.cgi ================================================= NEW FREE RESOURCES AT THE SITE ============================== NEW COATS OF ARMS ADDED TO THE GALLERY: The following 8 coats of arms images and family history details have been added to the Gallery: A: MacAleese C: Crilly H: Hickey M: Marney, Monatgue P: Powell T: Tully W: Wynne View the Gallery here: http://www.irishsurnames.com/coatsofarms/gm.htm THE PERFECT CHRISTMAS GIFT: We now have over 100,000 worldwide names available. Get the Coat of Arms Print, Claddagh Ring, Screensaver, Watch, T-Shirt Transfer or Clock for your name at: http://www.irishnation.com/familycrestgifts.htm ================================================= PLAY THE IRISH LOTTERY ====================== 34 Millionaires were created by the Irish lottery in 2003! You could be next - especially if you use the service provided by www.irishlotto.net http://www.irishlotto.net has been in operation since 1988 and is one of the oldest online lottery sites in the world. With subscribers in 89 countries it is easy to see why so this site is considered as being among the most reliable lottery sites on the web. Their website is now totally revamped! The Irish lotto jackpot is never lower than US$1,500,000 and is frequently worth in excess of US$5,000,000. It can rise to $12,000,000 and more. You don't have to live in Ireland to play and all winnings are Tax Free! The draw takes place every Wednesday and Saturday night on national television (RTE). The jackpot prize is won by matching the first six numbers drawn (1 to 42). A seventh number is also drawn and is called the 'bonus' number. 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Email the friendly staff at firstname.lastname@example.org or visit the website at: http://www.irishlotto.net ================================================= AN IRISH LULLABY by Cherilyn Laymance ================ foreword: I wrote this poem as part of a children's book for my children. I think it conjures images of the lushness of the Irish countryside. An Irish Lullaby Oh, come little lady to where faeries dwell Live wonders no mortal has seen. ‘Tis distant from yon darkened dell, Far beyond thither patchwork of green. There in our gardens such lush flowers grow, Each nurtured by soft faerie singing. Such loveliness only the wee ones shall know. Just nod and I'll take you there winging. We laugh and we play throughout everyday. Yet, Evening will find faeries dancing, Swirling amid our grand garden bouquet Our hearts, wings, and spirits all prancing. Then, dark velvet night falls gently around, A velvet all studded with starlight. We drift off to sleep sweet dreamward bound, Sailing on pale beams of moonlight. Oh! Dear little lady, what dreams faeries see, Dreams of beauty, of joy, and of flowers. We're peaceful as only faeries can be, At rest in our bloom scented bowers. On glimmering gossamer magical wings Our sweet faerie dreams flutter past. Thus, in faerie gardens each gleaming brings A little more joy than the last. Oh, come little lady, come fly there with me. Come little lady, what magic you'll see. Come little lady, there life will be grand. This is my promise to thee. (repeat) ================================================= YOU CAN HELP TO KEEP THIS FREE NEWSLETTER ALIVE! Visit http://www.irishnation.com where you can get great Irish gifts, prints, claddagh jewellery, engraved glassware and much more. Anne MacDonald ordered a family crest plaque: Hello, Michael, Received my plaque, carefully wrapped, in good order. It is splendid! I am thrilled, and I know that my dad, for whose 81st birthday this was ordered, will love it. I would like to order another one! Everyone who has seen the plaque has been really impressed, even those who, as my daughter says are 'not into ancestor worship!' Again, my hearty thanks for this first-class product. Best wishes for happy holiday season. Sincerely, Anne MacDonald THE PERFECT CHRISTMAS GIFT! View family crest plaques here: http://www.irishnation.com/familycrestplaques.htm ================================================= IRISH CATHOLICISM AND CONFESSIONAL RESISTANCE TO ENGLISH PROTESTANT INCURSIONS INTO IRELAND DURING THE REIGNS OF HENRY VIII AND ELIZABETH I By Patrick Foley ================ In his recent outstanding study 'Swords Around the Cross, The Nine Years War: Ireland's Defense of Faith and Fatherland, 1594-1603', Timothy T. O'Donnell, President of Christendom College in Front Royal, Virginia, offered an intellectually and spiritually compelling perspective for viewing the confessional struggle between the Celtic Catholics in Ireland and their British Protestant occupiers during much of the Tudor era. He wrote that the Irish wars against the English were not acts of rebellion, 'but the actions of a people separate and distinct, upholding their ancient and revered religion against the usurpations of an apostate queen.' (1) These are strong words! But, they capture clearly the thematic substance of the ideological drive that inspired the Catholics of Ireland to resist with determination the aggressions into their land of an England that during the latter years of the rule of King Henry VIII through the whole reign of Queen Elizabeth I, including the 1547-1553 period of King Edward VI's rulership, was bent upon planting in Ireland an Anglicized Protestantism. As an essential feature of their being forced to accept Anglicization during those years, the Irish Catholics were to suffer an attempted English imposition upon them of a form of Protestantism that grew from King Henry VIII's apostasy to Queen Elizabeth 1's courses of action aimed at keeping her nation unified in the religious and related political realms. With the birth and maturation of the Church of England during that era, a denomination with a clear national identity that eventually was established in Ireland as the Church of Ireland, Anglicization came to mean Protestantism. The two were wed together. Regarding the conquest of Ireland, a driving motivation of those two monarchs, as well as that of youthful King Edward VI, was the ethnocentric belief that to be civilized meant to be Anglicized. Excluding Mary I (1553-1558), herself a devout Roman Catholic (the granddaughter of Isabel La Catolica of Castile) who rejected the assertions of Kings Henry VIII and Edward VI that Anglicization included fidelity to a forming English Protestantism as defined in the developments that led to the eventual establishment of Church of England, those Tudor kings insisted that the monarch was the head of religion in the land. Historically, the first British intrusion into the terrain of Saint Patrick, that of King Henry II back in 1171 following earlier appearances of Norman Anglo troops beginning in 1167, carried with it serious religious overtones. But, those were seen in an ecclesiastical and royal way as aspects of the need for unity in doctrine, worship, and substances of the Catholic Church as the Faith matured throughout various lands, including Ireland. Pope Adrian IV, himself an Englishman, had approved Henry II's invasion more than a decade before it actually commenced.(2) Centuries later, however, upon King Henry VIII's 'break with Rome', enunciated most emphatically through the 1534 Act of Supremacy, in which the opening words were '....the king's Majesty justly and rightfully is and ought to be the supreme head of the Church of England....' (3), the nature of the Irish Catholic-Anglican confrontation took on a much more dramatic posture. This article is continued in the online edition and can be viewed here: http://www.ireland-information.com/nov04.htm#essay
England officially no longer accepted the pope as the successor to Saint Peter and Vicar of Christ on earth and thus the rock upon which the Church was built.(4) . That essential theological, ecclesiastical, and historical truism regarding Catholic Christianity and divine law was cast aside. From that point on, and especially during those final years of rule under Henry VIII, the six years of Edward VI sitting on the throne, and on through the reign of Queen Elizabeth --again, with the exception of Mary I--Anglicizing Catholic Ireland meant attempting to make it Protestant. Never before had that been the case with English conquests in Ireland As the Church of England emerged in that land that would soon be called Great Britain, from Henry VIII's, Edward VI's, and Elizabeth I's initiatives, so ultimately did the Church of Ireland become an unwanted reality for the Celtic Catholics in Ireland. When, in 1541, Henry VIII assumed the title of King of Ireland, earlier English conquering rulers simply being referred to as Lords of Ireland, he claimed headship of religion there based the basis of the Act of Supremacy claimed for English monarchs. The Celtic Catholics in that land of Saint Patrick, refusing to separate their Catholicism from their national and cultural heritage, intensely stiffened their resistance to these developments regarding the English and their newly-constructed Protestantism. Thus, Timothy T. O'Donnell's assessment is quite accurate. |
Jackie Dana of the University of Texas supports this view, writing in 'Plantations of Henry VIII to the Creation of an Irish Republic' that 'it was not until Henry VIII (king 1509-1547) that English interference took its toll on the Irish people. In order to subdue and rule Ireland, Henry sent Protestants to 'plant' or colonize Ireland and wrest control from her Gaelic and Catholic native population.'(5)
In the England of King Henry VIII several Catholic families, perhaps that of the Duke of Norfolk being the most powerful, were strong enough to simply ignore the royal pronouncements and parliamentary acts of the 1530s and 1540s designed to begin the stripping of England of its Catholic legacy. And, there were the devout martyrs so well known to history, Saint Thomas More probably being the most famous. Through the years of Elizabeth I's rule this remained the situation. In Ireland during those decades the Catholic population, in particular that beyond the Pale where English control failed to dominate as much as it was coming to in and around Dublin, likewise practiced their Catholic religion openly--though not without scattered persecution. Those Irish, however, in addition to continuing to live their Catholicism, also turned to war under the leadership of the Celtic chieftains to oppose the conquesting and Anglicizing English. As Timothy O'Donnell argues, the Irish saw their military struggles against the invading English as battles to preserve their Catholic faith. Theirs was a Catholicism in the Celtic tradition that the actions of the Tudor monarchs from Henry VIII through Elizabeth I--excluding as mentioned previously, Mary I--increasingly threatened.
As history has so carefully recorded, the mid-to-later years of Henry VIII's government, from approximately 1527 to 1541, proved devastating for the Catholic Church in England and concomitantly gravely endangered Ireland's Catholic heritage. From his decision to seek an annulment of his sacramental marriage to Catherine of Aragon (affectionately known as Catalina to her family in Spain) and join in a marital union with Anne Boleyn, 1527-1533, to his being named King of Ireland in 1541, Henry VIII and his accomplices in the 'King's Affair,' especially Thomas Cromwell, con-sciously strove to render impotent the religious authority of the papacy in their lands. That development can be seen as being at the heart of the undermining of Roman Catholicism in England and the attempt to accomplish the same in Ireland. Such matured as the energizing bases for the ultimate emergence of the Church of England and the Church of Ireland. And, Thomas Cromwell's role in all of that perhaps has never been fully understood popularly. Several decades ago one noted historical work said of Cromwell that 'he has long been associated with the dissolution of the monasteries.
Now, he is credited with the major initiative in both the break with Rome and the engineering of a 'revolution' in English administration.'
In England, from the forced submission of the clergy in 1530 to the 1534 Act of, Supremacy, papal authority was set aside. Henry VIII was proclaimed the 'Supreme Head of the Church of England.' The dissolution of the monasteries and other seizures of ecclesiastical properties were exacerbated, and the hunting down and executing of loyal Catholics--clerical, religious, and lay--became commonplace. That anti-Catholic milieu also surfaced visibly in Ireland. In 1537 the Irish Parliament at Dublin declared Anglicanism, in the form of the Church of Ireland, to be the 'established' religion of Ireland. The vast majority of those sons and daughters of Saint Patrick, again, especially beyond the Pale, staunchly rejected Henry VIII's innovations and not only remained dedicated Roman Catholics, but increasingly determined to resist the Protetsantized Anglicization of their homeland.
Three-and-one-half centuries later one of England's most famous nineteenth-century prime minister's, William E. Gladstone--himself a loyal Anglican--decried the historical situation in the Ireland of his day as one that had grown from Henry VIII's. Edward VI's, and Elizabeth I's usurpations. He described it as being a religious-socio-economic environment wherein the established church, the Church of Ireland, existed as an institution of great wealth and vast lands, but one 'whose services were not attended by most of the Irish, who crowded into their little Roman Catholic chapels.'(7)
As Henry VIII's Anglicizing ethnocentric arrogance increased the Celtic Catholics in Ireland stiffened their resistance. Such a Celtic Catholic posture held steadfast throughout the remainder of the sixteenth century, to the end of the Nine Years War and Queen Elizabeth I's death in 1603. And, the memory of those days is deeply entrenched in Irish Catholic thinking of today regarding the English Protestant invasions.
The slightly more than a decade following King Henry VIII's death in 1547 witnessed Catholic Ireland being forced to observe and react to religious developments in England which featured the extreme Protestantism that grew under young King Edward VI (1547-1553) and his advisors as well as the abrupt, but thorough, return to Roman Catholicism which Catherine of Aragon's and Henry's daughter Mary I (1553-1558) promoted. What, if any, impact was that to have on the Celtic Catholics, especially in Ireland? Professor Dana offers this summary:
Henry sent Protestants to 'plant' or colonize Ireland and wrest control of her from the Gaelic and Catholic native population. Additionally, non-Conforming Protestants often went to Ireland [essentially beginning with King Edward VI's reign] where they could worship as they chose with minimal interference from the Church of Ireland. Subsequent kings and queens, notably Elizabeth I, increased the efforts to install plantations across the island, claiming land for England and forcing the Irish to rent their own land back from their conquerors This effort to 're-colonize' an already thriving civilization was largely successful, particularly in the area around Dublin and in the province of Ulster, and this began the period in Irish history known as the 'Protestant Ascendancy.' All actions on the part of the Irish to resist the incursions were soundly defeated by English forces.(8)
Of all the changes made in religion in Ireland initiated during the reign of King Edward VI, the publication in 1549 of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer was perhaps the most repugnant to the Celtic Catholics of the land. That work--eloquent in its own right--retained some prayers of traditional Roman Catholic worship, but dismissed most. Moreover, it was written in English rather than Latin. Thus, Anglicization came to mean not only substituting English for Irish in language, with all of that action's accompanying cultural and social mores alterations that might be anticipated, but also through the Church of Ireland it replaced Latin with English in the religious realm. Moreover, the prelate who established the bases for such, Archbishop Cranmer, already had angered the Irish Catholics because of his major role in granting Henry VIII's 'divorce' and subsequent marriage with Anne Boleyn, therefore helping to usher into England, and eventually Ireland, the 'break with Rome.'.
Queen Elizabeth I's 'Elizabethan Compromise' was so distasteful to the Celtic Catholics of Ireland that it was to be only a matter of time until wars energized by a commitment to defend their Church erupted, military operations which as earlier pointed out the Irish Catholic chieftains led. Not only did Ireland's continental Catholic allies support them--especially Spain--but so also did the Holy See approve of the Celtic Catholic opposition to English Protestant Anglicization. Even religious communities, such as the Jesuits, enthusiastically entered the struggle. The final campaigns, the Nine Years War (1594-1603), were the ones that Timothy O'Donnell described as 'Ireland's defense of Faith and fatherland.'(9) The difficulty with the 'Elizabethan Compromise' was that both in England as well as Ireland it excluded those who were seen as being on the extreme fringes of religious dedication, either Protestants, especially Calvinists such as the Puritans, or Roman Catholics who, as Warren H. Carroll has claimed in Ireland, '. . . .almost universally rejected the change of religion in England.'(10) Thus, as Elizabeth I envisioned a religion which the majority of her subjects in England could find acceptable, given that it was under her rule that religion ever-increasingly assumed a nationalistic character--to be English meant to be Anglican--in Ireland such a purview was almost universally rejected.
The Celtic Catholics of Ireland overwhelmingly interpreted Queen Elizabeth's vision as aggressive Protestantized Anglicization wherein the Roman Catholic heritage of that Celtic land was to be stamped out. Even with the political disunity of their chieftains still very much a fact of life in Ireland, countless Irish began to follow those chieftains in warfare against Elizabeth's forces. In the Celtic Irish view, they had to oppose any attempt to enforce upon them a religion that had deposed the pope as head of their Church. And, as a reflection of the cultural-social aspect of the issue, Irish Catholics could have little or no communication with clergy of the Church of Ireland, who came over to their native land from England knowing not a word of the Irish language nor showing any interest in the Irish Celtic culture.
James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald of Munster was the first chieftain to lead a rebellion against the Elizabethan English, but he was by no means the last. He headed the uprisings in Munster that lasted from 1569-1573. Perhaps of most poignant significance, Fitzgerald reflected the heart and soul of Celtic Catholic Ireland. Of him and his campaigns to defend against English invasion, Carroll wrote 'In Ireland Fitzmaurice constituted himself the apostle of an all Catholic island under the patronage of the Pope and the king of Spain.'(11) The greatest appeal for a unified Ireland existed not at that
time in a nationalistic political sense, but rather in that peoples' passionate and historic fidelity to their Roman Catholic legacy: religiously, culturally, and socially. Timothy O'Donnell pointedly reminded us that Hugh O'Donnell and Hugh O'Niell founded the Catholic Confederacy--those Irishmen and women who led the effort to defend Catholic Ireland from English conquest on this high ideological plane during the Nine Years War--as an historical expression of the Celtic Catholics of Ireland's commitment to the defense of their religious identity. In summary, Anglicization of Celtic Catholic Ireland, historically obnoxious to the Irish people assumed a radically changed and more unacceptable character when England, under King Henry VIII, became Protestant. For the Celtic Catholics in Ireland their religious Faith soon came to overshadow all else! For them their Roman Catholic inheritance clearly existed as the heart and soul of their civilization. Thus, they not only openly refused to adhere to the Anglicized substance of the Church of Ireland and other Protestant denominations that surfaced in that land of Saint Patrick, but they actually engaged in wars against the incursions.
Even today, four centuries later, that memory remains vivid. It is still at the center of the Irish-English confrontations that are so often headlined in contemporary times.
Notes 1. Timothy T. O'Donnell, Swords Around the Cross, the Nine Years War: Ireland's Defense of Faith and Fatherland1594-1603 (Front Royal, Virginia: Christendom Press, 2001), 19. 2. Seumas MacManus, The Story of the Irish Race (Old Greenwhich, Connect- Icut: The Devin-Adair Company, 1966, originally published in 1921), 319. 3. http://www.britainexpress.com/history/tudorsupremacy-henry-text.htm 4. For a discussion of this overview see Avery Dulles, S.J., A Church to Believe In: Discipleship and the Dynamics of Freedom (New York: Crossroad Publishing Company, 1982), 81-83. 5. http://wwwvm5.utexas.edu/-jdana/history/towwii.html 6. Walter Phelps Hall, et al, A History of England and the Empire-Commonwealth (Waltham, Massachusetts, sixth edition, 1971), 85. 7. Ibid., 475-76. 8. http://wwwvm5.utexas.edu/-jdana/history/towwii.html 9. O'Donnell, cf. note 1, title of his book 10. Warren H, Carroll, A History of Christendom vol. 4: The Cleaving of Christendom (Front Royal, Virginia: Christendom Press, 2000): 382. 11. Ibid., 383.
Selected Bibliography Beckett, J.C., The Making of Modern Ireland, 1603-1923, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966. Boylan, Henry, A Dictionary of Irish Biography, third edition, Niwot, Colorado: Roberta Rinehart Publishers, 1998. Brady, Ciaran, gen. ed., The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Ireland, Oxford: Helicon Publishing, Limited, 2000. Carroll, Warren H., A History of Christendom Vol. 4: The Cleaving of Christendom, Front Royal, Virginia: Christendom Press, 2000. Cobbett, William, A History of the Protestant Reformation in England and Ireland, Rockford, Illinois: Tan Books and Publishers, 1988. Originally published in 1896. Costigan, Giovanni, A History of Modern Ireland: With a Sketch of Earlier Times, New York: Pegasus, 1969. Dulles, Avery, S.J., A Church to Believe In: Discipleship and the Dynamics of Freedom, New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1982. Kelly, J.N.D., The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986. MacManus, Seumas, The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland, Old Greenwich, Conecticut: The Devin-Adair Company, 1921 Mulloy, John J. Christianity and the Challenge of History, Front Royal, Virginia: Christendom Press, 1995. O'Donnell, Timothy T., Swords Around the Cross, the Nine Years War: Ireland's Defense of Faith and Fatherland 1594-1603, Front Royal, Virginia: Christendom Press, 2001. Olaizola, Jose Luis, Catalina de Aragon: mujer legitima de Enrique VIII, Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Planeta, S.A., 1993. Payne, Stanley G., Spanish Catholicism: An Historical Overview, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, 1984. Scherman, Katharine, The Flowering of Ireland: Saints, Scholars, and Kings, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1981.